“stone upon stona, a palace - value upon value, a structure”

A list

Using value types we saw in the previous page, we can construct various more complex structures. The simplest being a list.

We use block and email value types to construct this list of important emails:



Rye can recreate a structure typical for JSON. And array of JSON objects:

  { "name": "Jim",  "score": 230, "email": ""  }
  { "name": "Anne", "score": 290, "email": "" }

Could be something like this in Rye.

  { name: "Jim"   score: 230  email:  }
  { name: "Anne"  score: 290  email: }

Rye has more available value types than JSON. Here we used:

{ }           ; block
name:         ; set-word
"Jim"         ; string
230           ; integer  ; email


XML nodes can have data and also attributes.

<users current="1">
  <user id="1"></user>
  <user id="2"></user>

In Rye we could do something like this:

{ users current: 1 data: { 
  { user id: 1 data:  }
  { user id: 2 data:  }
} }

Logo Turtle commands

With Rye we often ask ourselves how would we represent the problem in our code, and we have a lot of freedom to do so.

Let’s say we have a logo turtle, that can rotate and move in the direction it’s turned. We could represent commands like this:

  pen 'down 
  move 100 rotate 90 
  move 100 rotate 90
  move 100 rotate 90
  move 100
  pen 'up

Newlines have no special meaning in Rye. They are just spacing.

Validation rules

How would we best represent the validation rules for some input information. Below is one example.

  name: required string calculate { .capitalize }
  birth: required iso-date check { > now\year } "Can't be born in the future"
  score: optional 50 integer

A NPC dialogue

We could define a dialogue options for specific NPC in an imaginary RPG game for example like this:

  0.3 { "I'm busy" }
  0.7 { "How can I help you?" options {
      "Where could I find the Pub" {
        0.4 { "Go to the church and turn right." do { mark-on-map 'church } }
        0.6 { "I hate early drinkers." }
      "I'm so tired ..." { 
        1.0 { "Here, have and apple!" do { add-health 25 } }

A greeter NPC

Let’s imagine rules for another, more direct NPC that stands in front of the hotel and greets the player in the morning and evening:

if hour < 8 { say "Good morning, sire!" }

if hour > 18 { say "Good evening, mr.!" }

Well, if hour and say are functions in our context, this above is just regular Rye language code. The same goes for Logo Turtle example, if we make functions pen, move and rotate each taking one argument, we can evaluate it as normal Rye. And the NPC dialogue has Rye code in its do blocks.